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Sondas a planetas

PLANETARY SPACECRAFT – Sondas a planetas

NAME

LAUNCH
DATE

BOOSTER

WEIGHT
lb (kg)

MISSION

Pioneer 5 (USA)

11-Mar-60

Thor-Able

95 (43)

First deep-space probe, returned data from a distance of 22.7 million miles (36.5 million km).
Mars (USSR)

10-Oct-60

SL-6/A-2-e

1,410 (640)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR)

14-Oct-60

SL-6/A-2-e

1,410 (640)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Sputnik 7 (USSR)

4-Feb-61

SL-6/A-2-e

1,410 (640)

Venus probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera 1 (USSR)

12-Feb-61

SL-6/A-2-e

1,419 (644)

Passed within 62,000 miles (100,000 km) of Venus but failed before encounter.
Mariner 1 (USA)

22-Jul-62

Atlas-Agena

445 (202)

Venus probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR)

25-Aug-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mariner 2 (USA)

27-Aug-62

Atlas-Agena

447 (203)

First successful fly-by of Venus. Found heavy atmosphere and hot surface, no magnetic field.
Venera (USSR)

1-Sep-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR)

12-Sep-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR)

24-Oct-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars 1 (USSR)

1-Nov-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,970 (893)

Mars probe, passed within 120,000 miles (193,000 km) of Mars but failed before encounter and before mid-course correction.
Mars (USSR)

4-Nov-62

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Cosmos 21 (USSR)

11-Nov-63

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR)

19-Feb-64

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Cosmos 27 (USSR)

27-Mar-64

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Zond 1 (USSR)

2-Apr-64

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Venus probe, passed within 62,000 miles (100,000 km) of Venus but failed before encounter.
Mariner 3 (USA)

5-Nov-64

Atlas-Agena

575 (261)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Mariner 4 (USA)

28-Nov-64

Atlas-Agena

575 (261)

First successful fly-by of Mars. 21 pictures returned. Found cratered surface, no canals or flowing water. Mostly carbon dioxide atmosphere, 1 per cent of Earth’s sea-level pressure.
Zond 2 (USSR)

30-Nov-64

SL-6/A-2-e

1,960 (890)

Mars probe, passed within 930 miles (1,500 km) of Mars but failed before encounter.
Venera 2 (USSR)

12-Nov-65

SL-6/A-2-e

2,123 (963)

Venus fly-by, probe failed at encounter.
Venera 3 (USSR)

16-Nov-65

SL-6/A-2-e

2,120 (960)

First Venus atmosphere entry, failed to return data.
Cosmos 96 (USSR)

23-Nov-65

SL-6/A-2-e

2,120 (960)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 6 (USA)

16-Dec-65

Delta

135 (61)

Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth’s orbit.
Pioneer 7 (USA)

17-Aug-66

Delta

135 (61)

Solar probe, orbiting Sun outside Earth’s orbit.
Venera 4 (USSR)

12-Jun-67

SL-6/A-2-e

2,439 (1,106)

First successful Venus atmosphere entry. Returned data to within 15.5 miles (25 km) of surface. Entry probe 845 lb (383 kg).
Mariner 5 (USA)

14-Jun-67

Atlas-Agena

540 (245)

Venus probe fly-by, 2,500 miles (4,000 km) from planet.
Cosmos 167 (USSR)

17-Jun-67

SL-6/A-2-e

2,425 (1,100)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 8 (USA)

13-Dec-67

Delta

145 (66)

Solar probe, orbiting Sun outside Earth’s orbit.
Pioneer 9 (USA)

8-Nov-68

Delta

148 (67)

Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth’s orbit.
Venera 5 (USSR)

5-Jan-69

SL-6/A-2-e

2,490 (1,130)

Venus atmosphere probe, 893 lb (405 kg). Crushed during descent.
Venera 6 (USSR)

10-Jan-69

SL-6/A-2-e

2,490 (1,130)

Venus atmosphere probe, 893 lb (405 kg). Crushed during descent.
Mariner 6 (USA)

24-Feb-69

Atlas-Centaur

911 (413)

Mars fly-by probe, returned data and 75 pictures.
Mariner 7 (USA)

27-Mar-69

Atlas-Centaur

911 (413)

Mars fly-by probe, returned data and 126 pictures.
Mars (USSR)

27-Mar-69

SL-12/D-1-e

7,035 (3,190)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR)

2-Apr-69

SL-12/D-1-e

7,035 (3,190)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Pioneer E (USA)

27-Aug-69

Delta

148 (67)

Solar probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera 7 (USSR)

17-Aug-70

SL-6/A-2-e

2,600 (1,180)

Venus atmosphere entry probe, 1,091 lb (495 kg). First successful to survive to surface.
Cosmos 359 (USSR)

22-Aug-70

SL-6/A-2-e

2,600 (1,180)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mariner 8 (USA)

8-May-71

Atlas-Centaur

2,273 (1,031)

Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Cosmos 419 (USSR)

10-May-71

SL-12/D-1-e

10,250 (4,650)

Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars 2 (USSR)

19-May-71

SL-12/D-1-e

10,253 (4,650)

Mars probe. Returned data from orbit but lander failed to return any data.
Mars 3 (USSR)

28-May-71

SL-12/D-1-e

10,253 (4,650)

Mars probe. Returned data from orbit but lander failed after reaching surface. Entry probe 1,400 lb (635 kg); surface payload 992 lb (450 kg).
Mariner 9 (USA)

30-May-71

Atlas-Centaur

2,270 (1,030)

First successful Mars orbiter. Returned over 7,000 pictures of surface and moons.
Pioneer 10 (USA)

3-Mar-72

Atlas-Centaur

570 (258)

First successful fly-by of Jupiter.
Venera 8 (USSR)

27-Mar-72

SL-6/A-2-e

2,602 (1,180)

Venus atmosphere entry probe, 1,090 lb (495 kg). Returned air and surface data from day side.
Cosmos 482 (USSR)

31-Mar-72

SL-6/A-2-e

2,600 (1,180)

Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 11 (USA)

6-Apr-73

Atlas-Centaur

571 (259)

Jupiter probe. First successful fly-by of Saturn providing detailed view of ring structure.
Mars 4 (USSR)

21-Jul-73

SL-12/D-1-e

8,710 (3,950)

Mars probe, failed to achieve orbit. Returned fly-by data.
Mars 5 (USSR)

25-Jul-73

SL-12/D-1-e

8,710 (3,950)

Returned data from Mars orbit.
Mars 6 (USSR)

5-Aug-73

SL-12/D-1-e

8,710 (3,950)

Mars fly-by. Lander returned 150 sec of data during descent.
Mars 7 (USSR)

9-Aug-73

SL-12/D-1-e

8,710 (3,950)

Mars fly-by. Lander probe failed to enter Mars atmosphere.
Mariner 10 (USA)

3-Nov-73

Atlas-Centaur

1,109 (503)

First TV pictures of Venus fly-by. Three fly-by encounters with Mercury.
Hellos 1 (US/FRG)

10-Dec-74

Titan-Centaur

816 (370)

Solar probe orbiting within 0.3 AU of Sun.
Venera 9 (USSR)

8-Jun-75

SL-12/D-1-e

10,884 (4,936)

Venus lander. Returned data and first TV pictures from surface. Orbiter returned data. Entry sphere 3,440 lb (1,560 kg); surface payload 1,455 lb (660 kg).
Venera 10 (USSR)

14-Jun-75

SL-12/D-1-e

11,098 (5,033)

Venus lander returned data and pictures from surface. Orbiter returned data. Entry sphere 3,440 lb (1,560 kg); surface payload 1,455 lb (660 kg).
Viking 1 (USA)

20-Aug-75

Titan-Centaur

7,497 (3,400)

Mars orbiter returned pictures and data. First successful Mars landing. Returned pictures and data. Orbiter 5,125 lb (2,224 kg); lander surface weight 1,270 lb (576 kg).
Viking 2 (USA)

9-Sep-75

Titan-Centaur

7,497 (3,490)

Mars orbiter returned pictures and data. Mars lander returned pictures and data. Orbiter 5,125 lb (2,224 kg); lander surface weight 1,270 lb (576 kg).
Hellos 2 (US/FRG)

15-Jan-76

Titan-Centaur

830 (376)

Solar probe orbiting within 0.29 AU of Sun.
Voyager 2 (USA)

20-Aug-77

Titan-Centaur

1,797 (815)

Fly-by probe of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Returned pictures and data.
Voyager 1 (USA)

5-Sep-77

Titan-Centaur

1,797 (815)

Fly-by probe of Jupiter and Saturn. Returned pictures and data. Discovered volcanoes on Io, Jupiter ring, new Saturn moons and ring structure.
Pioneer-Venus 1 (USA)

20-May-78

Atlas-Centaur

1,283 (582)

Venus orbiter, returned pictures and data.
Pioneer-Venus 2 (USA)

8-Aug-78

Atlas-Centaur

1,993 (904)

Venus bus, released four entry probes before encounter. Returned data from surface.
ICE (USA)

12-Aug-78

Delta

478 (217)

Originally launched as International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3). Transfer to escape trajectory and renamed International Comet Explorer. First ever comet fly-by on 2-Sep-85 of Giacobini-Zinner Comet.
Venera 11 (USSR)

9-Sep-78

SL-12/D-1-e

9,812 (4,450)

Venus fly-by probe, returned data. Lander returned atmosphere and surface data, descent payload 3,528 lb (1,600 kg).
Venera 12 (USSR)

14-Sep-78

SL-12/D-1-e

9,837 (4,461)

Venus fly-by probe, returned data. Lander returned atmosphere and surface data, descent payload 3,554 lb (1,612 kg).
Venera 13 (USSR)

30-Oct-81

SL-12/D-1-e

9,620 (4,363)

Venus fly-by probe, first color pictures of surface. Conducted first soil analysis at landing site, descent payload 3,627 lb (1,645 kg).
Venera 14 (USSR)

4-Nov-81

SL-12/D-1-e

9,620 (4,363)

Venus fly-by probe, returned color pictures of landing site and conducted analysis of soil, descent payload 3,627 lb (1,645 kg).
Venera 15 (USSR)

2-Jun-83

SL-12/D-1-e

11,574 (5,250)

Venus orbiter. radar surface mapper.
Venera 16 (USSR)

7-Jun-83

SL-12/D-1-e

11,819 (5,360)

Venus orbiter. radar surface mapper.
Vega 1 (USSR)

15-Dec-84

SL-12/D-1-e

10,850 (4,920)

Venus lander and French atmosphere balloon probe. Halley’s Comet fly-by 6-Mar-86.
Vega 2 (USSR)

21-Dec-84

SL-12/D-1-e

10,850 (4,920)

Venus lander and French atmosphere balloon probe. Halley’s Comet fly-by 9-Mar-86.
Sakigake (Japan)

7-Jan-85

Mu-3SII

305 (138)

First Japanese deep space probe. Distant Halley’s Comet fly-by 11-Mar-86.
Giotto (ESA)

2-Jul-85

Ariane 1

1,265 (574)

First close encounter with a comet. Halley’s Comet fly-by 14-Mar-86.
Suisei (Japan)

18-Aug-85

Mu-3SII

308 (140)

Japanese deep space probe. Distant Halley’s Comet fly-by 11-Mar-86.
Phobos 1 (USSR)

7-Jul-88

SL-12/D-1-e

13,715 (6,220)

Mars probe failed due to telemetry message error.
Phobos 2 (USSR)

12-Jul-88

SL-12/D-1-e

13,715 (6,220)

Mars orbiter, contact lost before planned fly-by of the moon Phobos.
Magellan (USA)

4-May-89

Shuttle/IUS

7,662 (3,475)

Venus orbiter, radar surface and gravity field mapper; arrived at Venus 10-Aug-90. First spacecraft to lower its orbit by using planet’s atmosphere (aerobraking).
Galileo (USA)

18-Oct-89

Shuttle/IUS

5,985 (2,715)

Jupiter orbiter, atmosphere probe. First fly-by of an asteroid, 951 Gaspra Oct-91 and 243 Ida Aug-93. First Jupiter atmosphere entry, returned 58 min of data. Arrived at Jupiter 7-Dec-95; disintegrated in Jupiter atmosphere 21-Sep-03. Orbiter 2,846 lb (1,291 kg); entry probe 739 lb (335 kg).
Ulysses (ESA/US)

6-Oct-90

Shuttle/IUS

818 (371)

Jupiter gravity assist International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM).
Mars Observer (USA)

25-Sep-92

Titan III/TOS

4,630 (2,100)

Mars orbiter, contact lost before entering orbit.
Wind (USA)

1-Nov-94

Delta II

2,635 (1,195)

Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth’s orbit.
NEAR (USA)

17-Feb-96

Delta II

2,480 (1,125)

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, placed in orbit around 433 Eros 14-Feb-00; first Eros orbit attempt failed Dec-99; asteroid Mathilde flyby Jun-97. Landed on Eros 12-Feb-01.
Mars Global Surveyor (USA)

7-Nov-96

Delta II

2,341 (1,062)

Mars orbiter. Arrived 12-Sep-97 for mapping through Jan-00. Mass at Mars arrival 1,691 lb (767 kg). Contact lost 2-Nov-06.
Mars 96 (Russia)

16-Nov-96

SL-12/D-1-e

15,045 (6,825)

Mars probe, failed to leave earth orbit.
Mars Pathfinder (USA)

4-Dec-96

Delta II

1,962 (890)

Mars lander, first planetary rover (Sojourner). Lander mass 794 lb (360 kg); microrover 35 lb (16 kg). Landed 4-Jul-97.
Cassini-Huygens (USA, ESA, Italy)

15-Oct-97

Titan-Centaur

12,421 (5,634)

Saturn orbiter (Cassini) and Titan probe (Huygens). Orbiter arrived at Saturn 30-Jun-2004 for start of 4-year mission. Probe successfully landed on Titan 14-Jan-2005 returning data and images. Orbiter mass 4,740 lb (2,150 kg); probe 770 lb (350 kg).
Nozomi (Japan)

3-Jul-98

M-V-3

1,190 (540)

Mars orbiter. Planned arrival was 11-Oct-99, but malfunctions delayed arrival to Dec-03. Mission abandoned Dec-03.
Mars Climate Orbiter (USA)

11-Dec-98

Delta II

1,387 (629)

Mars orbiter. Lost during attempted orbit insertion 23-Sep-99 due to navigation error.
Mars Polar Lander (USA)

3-Jan-99

Delta II

1,270 (576)

Mars lander, including Deep Space 2 microprobes. Communication lost during attempted landing 3-Dec-99. Cause of failure likely premature engine shutdown.
Stardust (USA)

7-Feb-99

Delta II

838 (380)

Comet flyby and sample return. Encountered Comet Wild 2 on 2-Jan-04; sample cannister successfully returned to Earth 15-Jan-06.
2001 Mars Odyssey (USA)

7-Apr-01

Delta II

1,598 (725)

Mars orbiter. Arrived 24-Oct-01 for mapping and global observations through Aug-04. On-orbit dry mass 830 lb (376 kg).
Hayabusa (Japan)

9-May-03

M-V-5

1,168 (530)

Asteroid orbiter and sample return. Arrived at asteroid Itokawa Sep-05; fuel leak has put mission future in doubt. Planned sample return is Jun-10. Originally named MUSES-C.
Mars Express (ESA)

2-Jun-03

Soyuz/Fregat

2,469 (1,120)

Mars orbiter & lander (Beagle 2). Orbiter arrived 25-Dec-03. Communication with lander failed, cause unknown. Orbiter mass 249 lb (113 kg); lander 132 lb (60 kg).
Mars Exploration Rover A (USA)

10-Jun-03

Delta II

2,343 (1,063)

Mars lander & rover (Spirit). Landed 3-Jan-04 for start of 90-day mission; still operating in 2007. Lander mass 767 lb (348 kg); rover 408 lb (185 kg).
Mars Exploration Rover B (USA)

7-Jul-03

Delta II

2,343 (1,063)

Mars lander & rover (Opportunity). Landed 24-Jan-04 for start of 90-day mission; still operating in 2007. Lander mass 767 lb (348 kg); rover 408 lb (185 kg).
Rosetta (ESA)

2-Mar-04

Ariane 5 G+

6,600 (3,000)

Coment orbiter and lander (Philae). Scheduled arrival at Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is May-2014 for start of 1.5-year science mission. Two asteroid flybys planned. Orbiter mass 2,640 lb (1,200 kg); Lander mass 220 lb (100 kg).
MESSENGER (USA)

3-Aug-04

Delta II

2,400 (1,100)

Mercury orbiter. Flyby of Mercury on 14-Jan-08; orbit insertion scheduled March-2011 for start of planned 1-year mapping and science mission.
Deep Impact (USA)

12-Jan-05

Delta II

2,249 (1,020)

Flyby spacecraft and impactor to study interior of Comet Tempel 1; impact successfully occured 4-Jul-05. Flyby spacecraft mass 1,433 lb (650 kg); impactor 816 lb (370 kg).
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (USA)

12-Aug-05

Atlas V

4,806 (2,180)

Mars orbiter. Arrived 10-Mar-06 for low-altitude science observation, site investigation for future landings, and telecommunication & navigation relay for follow-on missions.
Venus Express (ESA)

9-Nov-05

Soyuz/Fregat

2,734 (1,240)

Venus orbiter. Arrived 11-Apr-06 for start of mission to study the planet’s atmosphere.
New Horizons (USA)

19-Jan-06

Atlas V

1,054 (478)

Pluto-Charon fly-by probe. Scheduled arrival is mid-2015 for 5-month geological study and mapping mission.
Phoenix (USA)

3-Aug-07

Delta II

1,477 (670)

Mars lander. Landed 25-May-08 to begin 90-day mission to study the history of water and search for organic molecules in the martian arctic soil. Lander mass 772 lb (350 kg).
Dawn (USA)

27-Sep-07

Delta II

2,685 (1,218)

Asteroid orbiter. Scheduled arrival at Vesta is Aug-2011 and Ceres Feb-2015; to study protoplanets with goal of characterizing the conditions and processes of the early solar system.

Compiled and edited by Robert A. Braeunig, 1996-2008.
Bibliography

Fuente: http://www.braeunig.us/space/planet.htm

 

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