RSS

Misiones no tripuladas a la Luna

LUNAR SPACECRAFT (Unmanned) – Misiones no tripuladas a la Luna

NAME

LAUNCH
DATE

BOOSTER

WEIGHT
lb (kg)

MISSION

Pioneer 0 (USA)

17-Aug-58

Thor-Able

84 (38)

Lunar orbit attempt. Booster exploded at ten miles (16 km).
Luna (USSR)

23-Sep-58

SL-3/A-1

795 (361)

Lunar impact attempt. Structural failure at 92 sec into launch.
Pioneer 1 (USA)

11-Oct-58

Thor-Able

84 (38)

Lunar orbit attempt. Reached 70,700 miles (113,830 km), fell back over South Pacific.
Luna (USSR)

12-Oct-58

SL-3/A-1

795 (361)

Lunar impact attempt. Launcher exploded at 100 sec into launch.
Pioneer 2 (USA)

8-Nov-58

Thor-Able

84 (38)

Lunar orbit attempt. Reached 965 miles (1,550 km), fell back over central Africa.
Luna (USSR)

4-Dec-58

SL-3/A-1

795 (361)

Lunar impact attempt. Stage 1 failure at 245 sec into launch.
Pioneer 3 (USA)

6-Dec-58

Juno II

13 (6)

Lunar fly-by attempt. Reached 63,580 miles (102,320 km), fell back over central Africa.
Luna 1 (USSR)

2-Jan-59

SL-3/A-1

795 (361)

Lunar impact attempt. Solar orbit after 3,100 mile (5,000 km) fly-by.
Pioneer 4 (USA)

3-Mar-59

Juno II

13 (6)

Lunar fly-by at 37,050 miles (60,500 km), into solar orbit.
Luna (USSR)

18-Jul-59

SL-3/A-1

853 (387)

Lunar impact attempt. Failed to reach Earth orbit.
Luna 2 (USSR)

12-Sep-59

SL-3/A-1

853 (387)

First lunar impact.
Pioneer/Orbiter (USA)

24-Sep-59

Atlas-Able

375 (170)

Lunar orbit attempt. Destroyed in booster static test explosion.
Luna 3 (USSR)

4-Oct-59

SL-3/A-1

614 (278)

Final stage instrumentation 345 lb (156 kg); mission payload 959 lb (434 kg). Photographed 70% of lunar far side.
Pioneer/Orbiter (USA)

26-Nov-59

Atlas-Able

373 (169)

Lunar orbit attempt. Destroyed when booster shroud lost 45 sec into launch.
Luna (USSR)

15-Apr-60

SL-3/A-1

615 (279)

Lunar flyby attempt. Failed to reach Earth orbit, premature stage 2 cutoff.
Luna (USSR)

16-Apr-60

SL-3/A-1

615 (279)

Lunar flyby attempt. Strap-on failed to ignite, broke up near pad.
Pioneer/Orbiter (USA)

25-Sep-60

Atlas-Able

388 (176)

Lunar orbit attempt. Destroyed when booster second-stage oxidizer system malfunctioned.
Pioneer/Orbiter (USA)

15-Dec-60

Atlas-Able

388 (176)

Lunar orbit attempt. Destroyed when booster first-stage exploded 70 sec into launch.
Ranger 1 (USA)

23-Aug-61

Atlas-Agena

674 (306)

High Earth orbit test vehicle attempt. Achieved only low Earth orbit when Agena failed to restart.
Ranger 2 (USA)

18-Nov-61

Atlas-Agena

674 (306)

High Earth orbit test vehicle attempt. Achieved only low Earth orbit when Agena failed to restart.
Ranger 3 (USA)

26-Jan-62

Atlas-Agena

727 (330)

Hard land seismometer attempt. Lunar fly-by at 22,872 miles (36,808 km) when Agena imparted excess velocity.
Ranger 4 (USA)

23-Apr-62

Atlas-Agena

730 (331)

Hard land seismometer attempt. Timer failure. Tracked to indicate impact on lunar far side.
Ranger 5 (USA)

18-Oct-62

Atlas-Agena

752 (341)

Hard land seismometer attempt. Power failure. Solar orbit after 450 mile (725 km) lunar fly-by.
Sputnik 25 (USSR)

4-Jan-63

SL-6/A-2-e

3,080 (1,400)

Unannounced soft-landing attempt. Earth orbit only.
Luna (USSR)

3-Feb-63

SL-6/A-2-e

3,080 (1,400)

Soft-landing attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 4 (USSR)

2-Apr-63

SL-6/A-2-e

3,135 (1,422)

Soft-landing attempt. Solar orbit after 5,280 mile (8,500 km) lunar fly-by.
Ranger 6 (USA)

30-Jan-64

Atlas-Agena

805 (365)

TV close-up before impact attempt. Crashed on target but no pictures returned.
Luna (USSR)

21-Mar-64

SL-6/A-2-e

3,142 (1,425)

Soft-landing attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna (USSR)

20-Apr-64

SL-6/A-2-e

3,142 (1,425)

Soft-landing attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Zond (USSR)

4-Jun-64

SL-6/A-2-e

()

Lunar test of Mars probe. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Ranger 7 (USA)

28-Jul-64

Atlas-Agena

806 (366)

Returned 4,306 high-resolution pictures before impact on Mare Cognitum.
Ranger 8 (USA)

17-Feb-65

Atlas-Agena

809 (367)

Returned 7,137 high-resolution pictures before impact on Mare Tranquillitatis.
Cosmos 60 (USSR)

12-Mar-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,240 (1,470)

Soft-landing attempt. Earth orbit only.
Ranger 9 (USA)

21-Mar-65

Atlas-Agena

807 (366)

Returned 5,814 high-resolution pictures before impact inside crater Alphonsus.
Luna (USSR)

10-Apr-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,255 (1,476)?

Soft-landing attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 5 (USSR)

9-May-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,255 (1,476)

Soft-landing attempt. Crashed at 31oS x 8oE.
Luna 6 (USSR)

8-Jun-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,180 (1,442)

Soft-landing attempt. Solar orbit after 100,000 mile (160,000 km) lunar fly-by.
Zond 3 (USSR)

18-Jul-65

SL-6/A-2-e

2,095 (950)

Lunar fly-by, into solar orbit. Returned pictures of remaining portions of lunar far side.
Centaur 3 (USA)

11-Aug-65

Atlas-Centaur

2,100 (952)

High Earth orbit of Surveyor dynamic model. Engineering development flight of Centaur.
Luna 7 (USSR)

4-Oct-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,321 (1,506)

Soft-landing attempt. Impact at 9oN x 40oW.
Luna 8 (USSR)

3-Dec-65

SL-6/A-2-e

3,422 (1,552)

Soft-landing attempt. Impact at 9o8’N x 63o18’W.
Luna 9 (USSR)

31-Jan-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,490 (1,583)

First successful soft lunar landing at 7o8’N x 64o33’W. Returned TV panoramas and radiation data over four days. 220 lb (100 kg) capsule.
Cosmos 111 (USSR)

1-Mar-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,530 (1,600)

Lunar orbit attempt. Earth orbit only.
Luna 10 (USSR)

31-Mar-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,490 (1,583)

First successful lunar orbit. 540 lb (245 kg) satellite returned data from 217 x 632 mile (350 x 1,017 km), 178.3 min, 71o32′ orbit over 56-day life.
Luna (USSR)

30-Apr-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,490 (1,583)?

Lunar orbit attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Surveyor 1 (USA)

30-May-66

Atlas-Centaur

2,194 (995)

Soft-landing at 2o27’S x 43o13’W. Returned 11,237 TV pictures and engineering data over six weeks.
Explorer 33 (USA)

1-Jul-66

Delta

205 (93)

Lunar orbit attempt. Achieved 9,880 x 270,300 mile (15,900 x 435,000 km) Earth orbit. Returned particle and field data.
Lunar Orbiter 1 (USA)

10-Aug-66

Atlas-Agena

850 (386)

Lunar orbit, 118 x 1,160 miles (189 x 1,867 km) 12.2o, perilune lowered to 25 miles (40 km). Returned 209 photo frames of surface.
Luna 11 (USSR)

24-Aug-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,615 (1,640)

Lunar orbit, 99 x 746 miles (159 x 1,200 km), 178 min, 27o.
Surveyor 2 (USA)

20-Sep-66

Atlas-Centaur

2,200 (1,000)

Soft-landing attempt. Crashed south-east of crater Copernicus.
Luna 12 (USSR)

22-Oct-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,585 (1,625)

Lunar orbit, 62 x 1,081 miles (100 x 1,740 km), 205 min, 15o. Returned TV pictures of surface.
Centaur 5 (USA)

26-Oct-66

Atlas-Centaur

1,600 (726)

High Earth orbit with Surveyor mass model. Centaur restart development flight.
Lunar Orbiter 2 (USA)

6-Nov-66

Atlas-Agena

850 (386)

Lunar orbit, 122 x 1,150 miles (196 x 1,850 km) 11.8o, perilune lowered to 31 miles (50 km). Returned 817 photo frames of surface.
Luna 13 (USSR)

21-Dec-66

SL-6/A-2-e

3,570 (1,620)

Soft-landing at 18o52’N x 62o3’W. Returned TV panoramas and radiation data. Tested soil.
Lunar Orbiter 3 (USA)

5-Feb-67

Atlas-Agena

850 (386)

Lunar orbit, 131 x 1,120 miles (210 x 1,802 km) 20.9o, lowered to 34 x 1,148 miles (55 x 1,847 km). Returned 626 photo frames of surface.
Cosmos 146 (USSR)

10-Mar-67

SL-12/D-1-e

11,060 (5,017)

Zond attempt. Earth orbit only.
Cosmos 154 (USSR)

8-Apr-67

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Zond attempt. Earth orbit only.
Surveyor 3 (USA)

17-Apr-67

Atlas-Centaur

2,283 (1,035)

Soft-landing at 2o56’S x 23o20’W. Returned 6,315 TV pictures and engineering data. Surface weight 625 lb (283 kg).
Lunar Orbiter 4 (USA)

4-May-67

Atlas-Agena

850 (386)

Lunar orbit, 1,681 x 3,735 miles (2,706 x 6,011 km) 85.5o. Returned 546 photo frames of surface.
Surveyor 4 (USA)

14-Jul-67

Atlas-Centaur

2,291 (1,039)

Soft-landing attempt. Crashed at 0o26’N x 1o20’W.
Explorer 35 (USA)

19-Jul-67

Delta

229 (104)

Lunar orbit, 500 x 4,600 miles (804 x 7,400 km), 147o. Returned particle and fields data.
Lunar Orbiter 5 (USA)

1-Aug-67

Atlas-Agena

850 (386)

Lunar orbit, 121 x 3,743 miles (195 x 6,023 km) 85o, lowered to 62 x 931 miles (99 x 1,499 km). Returned 844 photo frames of surface.
Surveyor 5 (USA)

8-Sep-67

Atlas-Centaur

2,216 (1,005)

Soft-landing at 1o25’N x 22o15’E. Returned 18,006 TV pictures. First chemical analysis of soil.
Zond (USSR)

28-Sep-67

SL-12/D-1-e

11,465 (5,200)

Zond attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Surveyor 6 (USA)

7-Nov-67

Atlas-Centaur

2,223 (1,008)

Soft-landing at 0o25’N x 1o20’W. Returned 30,065 TV pictures and chemical analysis data.
Zond (USSR)

22-Nov-67

SL-12/D-1-e

11,465 (5,200)

Zond attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Surveyor 7 (USA)

7-Jan-68

Atlas-Centaur

2,293 (1,040)

Soft-landing at 40o53’S x 11o26’W near rim of crater Tycho. Returned 21,274 TV pictures and chemical analysis data from lunar highlands.
Luna USSR)

7-Feb-68

SL-6/A-2-e

3,561 (1,615)?

Lunar orbit attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Zond 4 (USSR)

2-Mar-68

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Zond mission check-out. Solar orbit.
Luna 14 (USSR)

7-Apr-68

SL-6/A-2-e

3,561 (1,615)

Lunar orbit, 100 x 540 miles (160 x 870 km), 160 min, 42o.
Zond (USSR)

23-Apr-68

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Zond attempt. Failed to reach Earth orbit.
Zond 5 (USSR)

14-Sep-68

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Circumlunar fly-by. Returned to Indian Ocean.
Zond 6 (USSR)

10-Nov-68

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Circumlunar fly-by. “Skip” return to Soviet Union.
Zond (USSR)

20-Jan-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Zond attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna (USSR)

19-Feb-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunar rover attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Zond L1S-1 (USSR)

21-Feb-69

SL-15/N-1

12,300 (5,600)

N-1 test & Zond attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna (USSR)

15-Apr-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Soil sample-return attempt. Failed to reach Earth orbit.
Luna (USSR)

14-Jun-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Soil sample-return attempt. Failed to reach Earth orbit.
Zond L1S-2 (USSR)

3-Jul-69

SL-15/N-1

12,300 (5,600)

N-1 test & Zond attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 15 (USSR)

13-Jul-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,570 (5,700)

Soil sample-return attempt. Failed to achieve soft lunar landing.
Zond 7 (USSR)

7-Aug-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Circumlunar fly-by. “Skip” return to Soviet Union.
Cosmos 300 (USSR)

23-Sep-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Soil sample-return attempt or rover attempt. Failed to leave Earth orbit.
Cosmos 305 (USSR)

22-Oct-69

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Soil sample-return attempt or rover attempt. Possible successful trans-lunar injection only.
Luna (USSR)

6-Feb-70

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Soil sample-return attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna (USSR)

19-Feb-70

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunar orbit attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 16 (USSR)

12-Sep-70

SL-12/D-1-e

12,620 (5,725)

First successful automatic lunar soil sample return. Sample from mare region at 0o41’S x 56o18’E. Dry lander 4,145 lb (1,880 kg).
Zond 8 (USSR)

20-Oct-70

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Circumlunar fly-by. Returned to Indian Ocean.
Luna 17 (USSR)

10-Nov-70

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunokhod 1 Rover 1,667 lb (756 kg); empty descent stage 2,381 lb (1,080 kg). Total surface payload 4,084 lb (1,836 kg). First successful automatic lunar rover, 38o18’N x 35oW.
Apollo 15 P & F Sub-Satellite (USA)

26-Jul-71

Saturn V

79 (36)

Particle and fields sub-satellite released from Apollo 15.
Luna 18 (USSR)

2-Sep-71

SL-12/D-1-e

12,125 (5,500)

Soil sample-return attempt. Crashed at 3o34’N x 56o30’E.
Luna 19 (USSR)

28-Sep-71

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunar orbit. Intially 87 mile (140 km) circular; 48 x 239 mile (77 x 385 km), 131 min, 40o after manoeuvring.
Luna 20 (USSR)

14-Feb-72

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Automatic soil sample-return from lunar highlands at 3o32’N x 56o33’E.
Apollo 16 P & F Sub-Satellite (USA)

16-Apr-72

Saturn V

79 (36)

Particle and fields sub-satellite released from Apollo 16.
Soyuz L3 (USSR)

23-Nov-72

SL-15/N-1

21,710 (9,850)

N-1 test with lunar orbiter + model lander. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 21 (USSR)

8-Jan-73

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunokhod 2 Rover 1,852 lb (840 kg); 25o54’N x 30o30’E.
Explorer 49 (USA)

10-Jun-73

Delta

723 (328)

Radio Astronomy Explorer placed in lunar orbit.
Luna 22 (USSR)

29-May-74

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Lunar orbit. Conducted extensive manoeuvring.
Luna 23 (USSR)

28-Oct-74

SL-12/D-1-e

12,570 (5,700)

Deep soil sample return attempt. Damaged on landing at 12o41’N x 62o18’E.
Luna (USSR)

16-Oct-75

SL-12/D-1-e

12,300 (5,600)

Deep soil sample return attempt. Failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Luna 24 (USSR)

9-Aug-76

SL-12/D-1-e

11,698 (5,306)

Deep soil sample return from 12o45’N x 62o12’E.
Hiten (Japan)

24-Jan-90

Mu-3SII-5

315 (143)

Earth orbiter that preformed ten lunar fly-bys and lunar impact on 10-Apr-93; subsatellite Hagoromo entered lunar orbit. Originally named MUSES-A
Clementine (USA)

25-Jan-94

Titan IIG

3,725 (1,690)

Lunar orbit, 260 x 1,810 miles (425 x 2,935 km), 90o. Mapped lunar surface. Malfuntion prevented planned fly-by of asteroid Geographos.
Lunar Prospector (USA)

6-Jan-98

Athena II

653 (296)

Lunar orbiter. Mapped minerals, magnetic & gravitational fields; discovered evidence of possible water ice at lunar poles. Crashed near moon’s south pole 31-Jul-99.
SMART-1 (ESA)

27-Sep-03

Ariane 5

808 (366)

First European mission to the Moon; entered lunar orbit 15-Nov-04. Two phase mission to test new technologies and study the Moon. Crashed into moon 3-Sep-06.
Kaguya (Japan)

14-Sep-07

H-IIA

6,360 (2,885)

Lunar orbiter with two sub-satellites; entered lunar orbit 3-Oct-07 to obtain scientific data on lunar origins & evolution, and develop the technology for future lunar exploration. Originally named SELENE.
Chang’e 1 (China)

24-Oct-07

Long March 3A

5,180 (2,350)

China’s first mission to the Moon; entered lunar orbit 5-Nov-07 to obtain 3D images of the lunar surface, map element distribution, evaluate soil depth, and study space environment.
Chandrayaan 1 (India)

22-Oct-08

PSLV-XL

3,042 (1,380)

India’s first mission to the Moon; lunar orbiter (523 kg) and impactor. Entered lunar orbit 8-Nov-08 to perform high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared, and X-ray regions.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (USA)

18-Jun-09

Atlas V

4,224 (1,916)

Lunar orbiter, launched with LCROSS. Entered orbit 23-Jun-09 to find possible landing sites for a lunar outpost, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment, and test new technology.
Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (USA)

18-Jun-09

Atlas V

1,664 (891)

Lunar impactor/probe, launched with LRO. Confirmed presence of water in permanently shadowed Cabeus crater by flying through debris plume created by previously impacted Centaur stage. Impact on 9-Oct-09.

Compiled and edited by Robert A. Braeunig, 1996, 2000, 2005-2009.
Fuente : http://www.braeunig.us/space/lunar.htm

Anuncios
 

Responder

Introduce tus datos o haz clic en un icono para iniciar sesión:

Logo de WordPress.com

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de WordPress.com. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Imagen de Twitter

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Twitter. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Foto de Facebook

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Facebook. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Google+ photo

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Google+. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Conectando a %s